The glass ceiling in European football (2014)
The findings in this report illustrate the levels of representation of ‘visible’ minorities and women in senior governance, senior operations and senior coaching positions in football in Europe. The findings are based on documentary and web-based analysis of the demographic background and occupational status of 4,608 individuals in positions of this kind at national league associations, national football federations and UEFA, and at a sample group of elite level professional clubs in seven countries: England, Germany, Spain, Belgium, France, Italy and the Netherlands. This analysis was conducted between October and December 2013. The findings in this report also illustrate a series of individual, cultural and structural factors which have enabled and/or disabled the career progression of ‘visible’ minority coaches in England, France and the Netherlands. The findings are based analysis of semi-structured interviews conducted with 40 highly qualifed ‘visible’ minority coaches with signifcant experience of working within professional and semi-professional football in each of the countries under review. These interviews were conducted between May 2012 and December 2013.